Milling

Milling machines

HERZOG offers a wide range of milling machines that are best suited to your special application

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HS-F 1000: Automatic milling maschine

Material: Steel, pig iron, nonferrous (optional)
Sample shape: Round, oval, square, double-thickness
Fully automatic sample preparation

HS-F 3000: Automatic milling machine

Material: Steel, pig iron
Sample shape: round, oval, square, double-thickness
Fully automatic sample preparation

HS-FF 2000: Automatic milling machine

Material: Steel, pig iron
Sample shape: round, oval, square, double-thickness
Fully automatic sample preparation

HS-FF: Automatic milling machine

Material: Steel, pig iron
Sample shape: round, oval, square, double-thickness
Fully automatic sample preparation

HS-CF: Automatic cutting and milling machine

Material: Steel, pig iron
Sample shape:
Cylindrical, conical, round, oval, square, double-thickness
Fully automatic sample preparation

HPF: Semi-automatic milling machine

Material: Steel, pig iron
Sample shape: round, oval, square, double-thickness
Manual sample input, automatic milling operation

HN-FF/ HN-SF: Automatic cutting and milling machine

Material: Non-ferrous- aluminium, lead, copper, zinc, tin, brass, magnesium and others
Sample shape: cylindrical, mushroom
Fully automatic sample preparation

HAF/2: Semi-automatic milling machine

Material: Non-ferrous- aluminium, lead, copper, zinc, tin, brass and others
Sample shape: cylindrical, mashroom, rectangular
Manual sample input, automatic milling operation

HERZOG expertise in milling

For milling, HERZOG uses components that are perfectly matched to each other. Here the clamping unit, metal milling heads, spindle motor and traversing axes are designed so that sufficient torque is obtained for even hard samples to be processed without any problem. At the same time, the occurrence of vibrations and oscillations is prevented so that neither chatter marks nor dirty surfaces can interrupt the flatness of the analysis surface. Finally, the fine-tuning of these components ensures that the consumable materials, particularly the cutting plates, are not too heavily used and thus last for as long as possible.

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Milling machines

For milling, HERZOG uses components that are perfectly matched to each other. Here the clamping unit, metal milling heads, spindle motor and traversing axes are designed so that sufficient torque is obtained for even hard samples to be processed without any problem. At the same time, the occurrence of vibrations and oscillations is prevented so that neither chatter marks nor dirty surfaces can interrupt the flatness of the analysis surface. Finally, the fine-tuning of these components ensures that the consumable materials, particularly the cutting plates, are not too heavily used and thus last for as long as possible.

Spectroscopic process

Optical emissions spectroscopy (OES) in particular but also X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) are frequently-used methods for analysing metals and solid bodies. These analyses are applied both in the metals industry such as in steelworks and also in foundries and production. On the basis of its short analysis times and the highly-accurate measurement results, OES is the preferred method for monitoring the alloys used. It is used in the production, material testing and quality control of raw materials and both semi-finished and finished products. In XRF analysis, an X-ray beam stimulates the emission of a fluorescence that corresponds to the chemical composition. This can be analysed and compared with the results of standard samples.

The importance of sample preparation

Thanks to software and hardware improvements, the processes named above are achieving increasingly detailed analysis results and are constantly lowering the evidence threshold for individual elements. As a result, sample preparation of the metals and materials being analysed is becoming increasingly important. Even minor contamination or slightly defective surfaces on the samples used can lead to incorrect analysis results and misinterpretations. For metal analysis in particular, the sample surface must be perfectly prepared because any spectroscopic analysis can only be as good as the quality of the samples.

Inhomogeneity of the production sample

It is also of crucial importance for the the sample surface being analysed to be representative and homogeneous. This applies particularly to production control samples in steelworks, but also to other production locations. For various reasons, the top layer of a sample is not normally representative of the steel melts being examined. Firstly, due to the brief direct air contact with the warm sample surface, a layer of scale approximately 10µm thick forms following separation from the mould of the sampler. Secondly, the larger part of the non-representative sample layer consists of inhomogeneities known as segregations. These segregations arise as a result of separations of the solutes occurring on the solidification front as the liquid steel taken from the steel melt solidifies. The cause lies in the different solubility of the alloy elements in the solid and liquid phases. For the most part, these separations also remain following complete solidification and represent lasting inhomogeneities of the chemical composition.
In addition, as a consequence of the melt solidifying from the outside inwards, the centre of the casting that solidifies last is in most cases oversaturated with typical by-elements such as carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, boron etc. This means that depending on the alloy composition, about 0.3 - 0.6 mm of the sample surface must be removed to allow the representative undisturbed sample layers to be analysed. Currently, this involves mainly using the milling and grinding machining processes. The sample preparation form selected depends on the material and analysis processes, but not least also on experience and tradition in the company and laboratory.

HERZOG would be happy to advise you on which milling machine, clamping fixture, milling head and cutting plates are best suited to your special application and sample shape. We will also support you in defining the optimum milling parameters for your application. The milling parameters that have the greatest influence here are feed rate, infeed and rotation. These should be selected in accordance with the sample geometry, material type and material hardness, as well as the milling tool used. A good compromise should be found here between maximum service life of the milling plates and the creation of a spectrometer-compliant analysis surface.

Automatic clamping of the
sampie and measurement
of sampie height (HS-FF 2000)
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